Samejima, K., P. Villa & W.C. Earnshaw. (1999). Role of factors downstream of caspases in nuclear disassembly during apoptotic execution. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B., 354: 1591-1599. PMID: 10582245; PMC1692664; DOI: 10.1098/rstb.1999.0503 FREE ARTICLE

Earnshaw, W.C. (1999). Apoptosis: A cellular poison cupboard. Nature 397: 387-389. PMID: 9989401; DOI: 10.1038/17015 FREE ARTICLE

Kaufmann, S.H., L.M. Martins, P.W. Mesner Jr., T.J. Kottke and W.C. Earnshaw. (1999). Methods Used to Study Protease Activation During Apoptosis. In: Apoptosis in Neurobiology (Hannun, Y.A., and Boustany, R-M, eds.). CRC Press, New York. pp. 205-232. DOI: BOOK

Halappanavar, S.S., LeRhun, Y., Mounir, S., Martins, L.M., Huot, J., Earnshaw, W.C. and G.M. Shah. (1999). Survival and proliferation of cells expressing caspase-uncleavable poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in response to death-inducing DNA damage by an alkylating agent. J. Biol. Chem. 274: 37097-37104. PMID: 10601269; DOI: 10.1074/jbc.274.52.37097; FREE ARTICLE

Everett, R.D., W.C. Earnshaw, A.F. Pluta, T. Sternsdorf, A.M. Ainsztein, M. Carmena, S. Ruchaud, W.-L. Hsu & A. Orr. (1999). A dynamic connection between centromeres and ND10 proteins. J. Cell Sci. 112: 3443-3454. PMID: 10504293; DOI: unknown; FREE ARTICLE

Mesner, P.W. Jr., K.C. Bible, L.M. Martins, T.J. Kottke, S.M. Srinivasula, P.A. Svingen, T. Chilcote, G. Basi, J. Tung, S.Krajewski, J.C. Reed, E.S. Alnemri, W.C. Earnshaw and S.H. Kaufmann. (1999). Characterization of Caspase Processing and Activation in HL-60 Cell Cytosol Under Cell-Free Conditions: Nucleotide Requirement and Inhibitor Profile. J. Biol. Chem. 274: 22635-22645. PMID: 10428844; DOI: 10.1074/jbc.274.32.22635; FREE ARTICLE

Kottke, T.J., A.L. Blajeski, L.M. Martins, P.W. Mesner, Jr., D.K. Armstrong, W. Devereaux, W.C. Earnshaw, N.E. Davidson, and S.H. Kaufmann (1999) Comparison of Paclitaxel-, 5-Fluoro-2′-deoxyuridine- and EpidermalGrowth Factor-Induced Apoptosis: Evidence for EGF-Induced Anoikis. J. Biol. Chem. 274: 15927-15936. PMID: 10336499; DOI: 10.1074/jbc.274.22.15927; FREE ARTICLE

Tyler-Smith, C. G. Gimelli, S. Giglio, G. Floridia, A. Pandya, G. Terzoli, P.E. Warburton, W.C. Earnshaw & O. Zuffardi. (1999). Transmission of a fully functional human neocentromere through three generations. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 64:1440-1444. PMID: 10205277; PMC1377882; DOI: 10.1086/302380; FREE ARTICLE

Gisselsson, D., M. Höglund, F. Mertens, B. Johansson, P.D. Cin, H. Van den Berghe, W.C. Earnshaw, F. Mitelman & N. Mandahl. (1999) The structure and dynamics of ring chromosomes in human neoplastic and non-neoplastic cells. Hum. Genet. 104: 315-325. PMID: 10369161; DOI: 10.1007/s004390050960; ARTICLE

Everett, R.D., W.C. Earnshaw, J. Findlay & P. Lomonte. (1999). Specific destruction of kinetochore protein CENP-C and disruption of cell division by herpes simplex virus immediate-early protein Vmw110. The EMBO J. 18: 1526-1538. PMID: 10075924; PMC1171241; DOI: 10.1093/emboj/18.6.1526; FREE ARTICLE

Samejima, K. P.A. Svingen, G.S. Basi, T. Kottke, P.W. Mesner,Jr., L. Stewart, F. Durrieu, G.G. Poirier, E.S. Alnemri, J.J. Champoux, S.H. Kaufmann & W.C. Earnshaw. (1999). Caspase-mediated cleavage of DNA topoisomerase I at unconventional sites during apoptosis. J. Biol. Chem. 274, 4335-4340. PMID: 9933635; DOI: 10.1074/jbc.274.7.4335; FREE ARTICLE

Savoian, M., W.C. Earnshaw, A. Khodjakov & C.L. Rieder. (1999). Cleavage Furrows Formed Between Centrosomes Lacking An Intervening Spindle and Chromosomes Contain Microtubule Bundles, INCENP, and CHO1 but Not CENP-E. Mol. Biol. Cell 10: 297-311. PMID: 9950678; PMC25170; DOI: unknown; FREE ARTICLE

Earnshaw, W.C. (1998). Introduction. Papers from the 4th international workshop on chromosome segregation and aneuploidy, Porto 1998. Chromosoma 107: 351. PMID: 9914365 DOI: 10.1007/s004120050317 ARTICLE

Earnshaw, W.C. (1998). The Centromere by K.H. Andy Choo. Book review. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 63: 290-291. DOI:; FREE ARTICLE

Earnshaw, W.C. and A. Ainsztein. (1998). Biology in Pictures: Chromosomal Passengers. Curr. Biol. 8: R403. DOI:;  FREE ARTICLE

Earnshaw, W.C. (1998). Worthy of your undivided attention: review of Cytokinesis in Animal Cells by R. Rappaport. Trends Cell Biol. 8: 91-92. DOI:; ARTICLE

Craig, J.M., W.C. Earnshaw & P. Vagnarelli. (1998). Mammalian centromeres: DNA sequence, protein composition, and role in cell cycle progression. Exp. Cell Res. 246: 249-262. PMID: 9925740; DOI: 10.1006/excr.1998.4278; ARTICLE

Earnshaw, W.C., L.M. Martins & S.H. Kaufmann. (1999). Mammalian caspases: Structure, activation, substrates and functions during apoptosis. Annu. Rev. Biochem., 68: 383-424. PMID: 110872455; DOI: 10.1146/annurev.biochem.68.1.383; FREE ARTICLE

Ainsztein, A.M., S.E. Kandels-Lewis, A.M. Mackay & W.C. Earnshaw. (1998). INCENP centromere and spindle targeting: Identification of essential conserved motifs and involvement of heterochromatin protein HP1. J. Cell Biol., 143: 1763-1774. PMID: 9864353; PMC2175214; DOI: 10.1083/jcb.143.7.1763; FREE ARTICLE

Jablonski, S. A., Chan, G. K. T., Cooke, C. A., Earnshaw, W. C. and T.J. Yen. (1998). hBUB1 and hBUBR1 kinases sequentially assemble onto kinetochores during prophase with hBUBR1 concentrating at the kinetochore plates in mitosis. Chromosoma 107: 386-396. PMID: 9914370; DOI: 10.1007/s004120050322; ARTICLE

Martins, L.M., T.J. Kottke, S.H. Kaufmann and W.C. Earnshaw (1998). Phosphorylated forms of activated caspases are present in cytosol from HL-60 cells during etoposide-induced apoptosis. Blood 92: 3042-3049. PMID: 9787137; DOI: unknown; FREE ARTICLE

Samejima, K., S.Toné, T.J. Kottke, M. Enari,H. Sakahira, C.A. Cooke, F. Durrieu, L.M. Martins, S. Nagata, S.H. Kaufmann and W.C. Earnshaw. (1998). Transition from caspase-dependent to caspase-independent mechanisms at the onset of apoptotic execution. J. Cell Biol. 143: 225-239. 9763434; PMC2132820; DOI: 10.1083/jcb.143.1.225; FREE ARTICLE

Samejima, K. and W.C. Earnshaw (1998). ICAD/DFF regulator of apoptotic nuclease is nuclear Exp. Cell Res. 243: 453-459. PMID: 9743604; DOI: unknown; ARTICLE

Olie, R.A., F. Durrieu, S. Cornillon, G. Loughran, J. Gross, W.C. Earnshaw and P. Golstein. (1998). Apparent caspase independence of programmed cell death in Dictyostelium. Curr. Biol. 8: 955-958. PMID: 9742396; DOI: 10.1016/S0960-9822(98)70395-1; FREE ARTICLE

Pluta, A.F., W.C. Earnshaw, I.G. Goldberg (1998) Interphase-specific association of intrinsic centromere protein CENP-C with HDaxx, a death domain-binding protein implicated in Fas-mediated cell death. J. Cell Sci. 111: 2029-2041. PMID: 9645950; DOI: unknown; FREE ARTICLE

Lamond, A.I. & W.C. Earnshaw. (1998). Structure and Function in the Nucleus. Science 280: 547-553. PMID: 9554838; DOI: 10.1126/science.280.5363.547; ARTICLE

Mackay, A.M., A.M. Ainsztein, D.M. Eckley & W.C. Earnshaw. (1998). A dominant mutant of INCENP, a chromosomal protein, disrupts prometaphase congression and cytokinesis. J. Cell Biol. 140: 991-1002. PMID: 9490714; PMC2132686; DOI: 10.1083/jcb.140.5.991; FREE ARTICLE

Clem, R.J., E.H.-Y. Cheng, C.L. Karp, D.G. Kirsch, K. Ueno, A. Takahashi, M.B. Kastan, D.E. Griffin, W.C. Earnshaw, M.A. Veliuona and J.M. Hardwick. (1998). Modulation of cell death by Bcl-xL through caspase interaction. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 95: 554-559. PMID: 9435230; PMC18458; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.95.2.554; FREE ARTICLE

Takahashi, A., Alnemri, E. S., Fernandes-Alnemri, T., Lazebnik, Y. A., Moir, R. D., Goldman, R. D., Poirier, G. G., Kaufmann, S. H. and W.C. Earnshaw. (1997). Biochemical dissection of nuclear events in apoptosis. In Cell Cycle Regulation (ed. R. R. Ruffolo Jr, G. Poste and B.W. Metcalf), Harwood Academic Publishers, The Netherlands. pp. 131-149. CHAPTER PREVIEW

Villa, P., S.H. Kaufmann & W.C. Earnshaw. (1997). Caspases and caspase inhibitors. Trends Biochem. Sci., 22: 388-393. PMID: 9357314; DOI: 10.1016/S0968-0004(97)01107-9  ARTICLE

Takahashi, A. and W.C. Earnshaw. (1997). In vitro systems for the study of apoptosis. In Advances In Pharmacology : Apoptosis: Pharmacological Implications and Therapeutic Opportunities (ed. S. H. Kaufmann), 41: 89-106. San Diego: Academic Press.

Warburton, P.E. & W.C. Earnshaw. (1997). Untangling the role of DNA topoisomerase II in mitotic chromosome structure and function. BioEssays 19: 97-99. PMID: 9046238; DOI: 10.1002/bies.950190203 ARTICLE

Cooke, C.A., B. Schaar, T.J. Yen & W.C. Earnshaw. (1997). Localization of CENP-E in the fibrous corona and outer plate of mammalian kinetochores from prometaphase through anaphase. Chromosoma 106: 446-455. PMID: 9391217; DOI: 10.1007/s004120050266; ARTICLE

Martins, L.M., P.W. Mesner, T.J. Kottke, G.S. Basi, S. Sinha, J.S. Tung, P.A. Svingen, B.J. Madden, A. Takahashi, D.J. McCormick, W.C. Earnshaw and S.H. Kaufmann. (1997). Comparison of caspase activation and subcellular localization in HL-60 and K562 cells undergoing etoposide-induced apoptosis. Blood 90: 4283-4296. PMID: 9373239; DOI: FREE ARTICLE

Warburton, P.E., C.A. Cooke, S. Bourassa, O. Vafa, B.A.Sullivan, G. Stetten, G. Gimelli, D. Warburton, C. Tyler-Smith, K.F. Sullivan, G.G. Poirier & W.C. Earnshaw. (1997). Immunolocalization of CENP-A suggests a distinct nucleosome structure at the inner kinetochore plate of active centromeres. Curr. Biol., 7: 901-904. PMID: 9382805; DOI: 10.1016/S0960-9822(06)00382-4; FREE ARTICLE

Fisher, A.M., Al-Gazali, L., Pramathan, T., Quaife, R., Cockwell, A.E., Barber, J.C.K., Earnshaw, W.C., Axelman, J., Migeon, B. & Tyler-Smith, C. (1997). Centromere inactivation in a dicentric human Y;21 translocation chromosome. Chromosoma 106: 199-206. PMID: 9254721; DOI: 10.1007/s004120050240; FREE ARTICLE

Depinet, T.W., Zackowski, J.L., Earnshaw, W.C., Kaffe, S., Sekhon, G.S., Stallard, R., Sullivan, B.A., Vance, G.H., Van Dyke, D.L., Willard, H.F., Zinn, A.B. & Schwartz, S. (1997). Characterization of neo-centromeres in marker chromosomes lacking detectable alpha-satellite DNA. Hum. Mol. Genet. 6: 1195-1204. PMID: 9259264; DOI: 10.1093/hmg/6.8.1195; FREE ARTICLE

Eischen, C.M., Kottke, T.J., Martins, L.M., Basi, G.S., Tung, J.S., Earnshaw, W.C., Leibson, P.J. & S.H. Kaufmann. (1997). Comparison of apoptosis in wild-type and Fas-resistant cells: Chemotherapy-induced apoptosis is not dependent on Fas/Fas ligand interactions. Blood, 90: 935-943. PMID: 9242521; DOI:; FREE ARTICLE

D’Amours, D., P.J. Duriez, K. Orth, R.G. Shah, V.M. Dixit, W.C. Earnshaw, E.S. Alnemri & G.G. Poirier. (1997). Purification of the death substrate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Anal. Biochem. 249: 106-108. PMID: 9193717; DOI: 10.1006/abio.1997.2153; ARTICLE

Eckley, D. M., Ainsztein, A.M., Mackay, A.M., Goldberg, I.G., and W.C. Earnshaw. (1997). Chromosomal proteins and cytokinesis: Patterns of cleavage furrow formation and Inner Centromere Protein positioning in mitotic heterokaryons and mid-anaphase cells. J. Cell Biol., 136:1169 – 1183. 9087435; PMC2132506; DOI: 10.1083/jcb.136.6.1169; FREE ARTICLE

Martins, L.M., Kottke,T., Mesner, P.W., Basi, G.S., Sinha, S., Frigon, N. Jr., Tatar, E., Tung, J.S., Bryant, Takahashi, A., Svingen, P.A., Madden, B.J., McCormick, D.J., W.C. Earnshaw, W.C. & S.H. Kaufmann. (1997). Activation of multiple Interleukin-1b converting enzyme homologues in cytosol and nuclei of HL-60 human leukemia cells during etoposide-induced apoptosis. J. Biol. Chem. 272: 7421-7430. PMID: 9054443; DOI: 10.1074/jbc.272.11.7421; FREE ARTICLE

Martins, L.M. & W.C. Earnshaw. (1997). Apoptosis: alive and kicking in 1997. Trends Cell Biol. 7: 111-114. PMID: 17708919; DOI: 10.1016/S0962-8924(96)10053-2; ARTICLE

Takahashi, A., Goldschmidt-Clermont, P.J., Alnemri, E.S., Fernandes-Alnemri, T., Yoshizawa-Kumagaya, K., Nakajima, K., Sasada, M., Poirier, G.G. & W.C. Earnshaw (1997). Inhibition of ICE-related proteases (caspases) and nuclear apoptosis by phenylarsine oxide. Exp. Cell Res. 231:123 – 131. PMID: 9056419; DOI: 10.1006/excr.1996.3459; ARTICLE

Takahashi, A. & W.C. Earnshaw. (1996). ICE-related proteases in apoptosis. Curr. Op. Genet. Dev. 6: 50-55. PMID: 8791488; DOI: 10.1016/S0959-437X(96) ARTICLE

Takahashi, A. Musy, P.-Y., Martins, L.M. Poirier, G.G. Turner, P.C., Moyer, R.W. & and W.C. Earnshaw (1996). CrmA/SPI-2 inhibition of an endogenous ICE-related protease responsible for lamin A cleavage and apoptotic nuclear fragmentation. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 32487-32490. PMID: 8955067; DOI: 10.1074/jbc.271.51.32487; FREE ARTICLE

Froelich, C.J., Hanna, W.L., Poirier, G.G., Duriez, P.J., D’Amours, D., Salvesen, G.S., Alnemri, E.S., Earnshaw, W.C. & G.M. Shah. (1996). Granzyme B/perforin mediated apoptosis of Jurkat cells results in cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase to the 89 kDa apoptotic fragment and less abundant 64 kDa fragment. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Com. , 227: 658-665. PMID: 8885990; DOI: 10.1006/bbrc.1996.1565; ARTICLE

Saitoh, H., C.A. Cooke, W.H. Burgess, W.C. Earnshaw & M. Dasso (1996). Direct and indirect association of the small GTPase Ran with nuclear pore proteins and soluble transport factors: Studies in Xenopus laevis egg extracts. Mol. Biol. Cell, 7: 1319-1334. PMID: 8885229, PMC275984; DOI: 0.1091/mbc.7.9.1319; FREE ARTICLE

Goldberg, I.G., H. Sawhney, A.F. Pluta, P.E. Warburton & W.C. Earnshaw (1996). Surprising deficiency of CENP-B binding sites in African green monkey a-satellite DNA: Implications for CENP-B function at centromeres. Mol. Cell. Biol. 16: 5156-5168. PMID: 8756673; PMC231516; DOI: 10.1128/mcb.16.9.5156; FREE ARTICLE

Takahashi, A., E.S. Alnemri, Y.A. Lazebnik, T. Fernandes-Alnemri, G. Litwack, R.D. Moir, R.D. Goldman, G.G. Poirier, S.H. Kaufmann & W.C. Earnshaw (1996). Cleavage of lamin A by Mch2a but not CPP32: Multiple ICE-related proteases with distinct substrate recognition properties are active in apoptosis. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 93: 8395-8400. PMID: 8710882; PMC38682; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.93.16.8395; FREE ARTICLE

Pluta, A. F. and W.C. Earnshaw (1996) Specific interaction between human kinetochore protein CENP-C and a nucleolar transcriptional regulator. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 18767-18774. PMID: 8702533; DOI: 10.1074/jbc.271.31.18767; FREE ARTICLE

Yang, C.H., J. Tomkiel, H. Saitoh, D.H. Johnson & W.C. Earnshaw (1996). Identification of overlapping DNA-binding and centromere-targeting domains in the human kinetochore protein CENP-C. Mol. Cell. Biol. 16: 3576-3586. PMID: 8668174; PMC231353; DOI: 10.1128/mcb.16.7.3576; FREE ARTICLE

Wordeman, L., W.C. Earnshaw & R.L. Bernat (1996). Disruption of CENP antigen function perturbs dynein anchoring to the mitotic kinetochore. Chromosoma, 104: 551-560. PMID: 8662248; DOI: 10.1007/BF00352295; ARTICLE

Malek,S. N. , C. H. Yang, W. C. Earnshaw, C. A. Kozak & S. Desiderio (1996) 150(TSP), a conserved nuclear phosphoprotein that contains multiple tetratricopeptide repeats and binds specifically to SH2 domains. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 6952-6962. PMID: 8636124; DOI: 10.1074/jbc.271.12.6952; FREE ARTICLE

Lazebnik, Y.A., A. Takahashi, G.G Poirier, S.H. Kaufmann & W.C. Earnshaw. (1995). Characterization of the execution phase of apoptosis in vitro using extracts from condemned-phase cells. J. Cell Sci. Suppl. 19: 41-49. PMID: 8655646 DOI: 10.1242/jcs.1995.supplement_19.6 FREE ARTICLE

Earnshaw, W.C. (1995) Nuclear Changes in Apoptosis. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 7: 337-343. PMID: 7662363; DOI: 10.1016/0955-0674(95)80088-3 ARTICLE

Fernandes-Alnemri, T., A. Takahashi, R. Armstrong, J. Krebs, L. Fritz, K.J. Tomaselli, L. Wang, Z. Yu, C.M. Croce, G. Salveson, W.C. Earnshaw, G. Litwack and E. S. Alnemri. (1995). Mch3, a novel human apoptotic cysteine protease related to CPP32. Cancer Res. 55: 6045-6052. PMID: 8521391; DOI: unknown; FREE ARTICLE

Pluta, A., A.M. Mackay, A.M. Ainsztein, I.G. Goldberg & W.C. Earnshaw. (1995). The centromere: Hub of chromosomal activities. Science 270: 1591-1594. PMID: 7502067; DOI: 10.1126/science.270.5242.1591; ARTICLE

Lazebnik, Y.A., A. Takahashi, R.D. Moir, R.D. Goldman, G.G Poirier, S.H. Kaufmann & W.C. Earnshaw (1995). Studies of the lamin proteinase reveal multiple parallel biochemical pathways during apoptotic execution. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 92: 9042-9046. PMID: 7568069; PMC40920; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.92.20.9042; FREE ARTICLE

Saitoh, N., I.G. Goldberg and W.C. Earnshaw. (1995). The SMC proteins and the coming of age of the chromosome scaffold hypothesis. BioEssays 17: 759-766. PMID: 8763828; DOI:10.1002/bies.950170905; ARTICLE

Earnshaw, W.C. (1995) Apoptosis: Lessons from in vitro systems. Trends Cell Biol. 5: 217-220. PMID: 14732117; DOI: 10.1016/S0962-8924(00)89006-6; ARTICLE

Whyte, J., W.C. Earnshaw, J.J. Champoux, L.H. Parker, L.J. Stewart, N.D. Hall & N.J. McHugh (1995). Detection of anti-topoisomerase-I antibodies using a full length human topoisomerase-I recombinant protein purified from a baculovirus expression system. Clin. Exp. Immunol., 100: 214-218. 7743657; PMC1534349; DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.1995.tb03655.x; FREE ARTICLE

Whyte, J., E. Soriano, W.C. Earnshaw, N.J. McHugh. (1995). Frequency of autoantibodies to a major epitope on the carboxyl-terminal fragment of CENP-B in patients with autoimmune-disease. Brit. J. Rheumatol. 34: 407-412 PMID: 7788167; DOI: 10.1093/rheumatology/34.5.407; ARTICLE

Tugendreich, S., J. Tomkiel, W. Earnshaw & P. Hieter (1995). The CDC27Hs protein is essential for the metaphase to anaphase transition and co-localizes with the CDC16Hs protein to the centrosome and mitotic spindle. Cell, 81: 261-268. PMID: 7736578; DOI: 10.1016/0092-8674(95)90336-4; FREE ARTICLE

Vázquez-Abad, D., C.A. Russell, S.M. Cusick, W.C. Earnshaw & N.F. Rothfield. (1995). Longitudinal study of anticentromere and antitopoisomerase-I isotypes. Clin. Immunol. Immunopath. 3: 257-270. PMID: 7859416; DOI: 10.1006/clin.1995.1038; ARTICLE

Page, S.L., W.C. Earnshaw, K.H.A. Choo & L.G. Shaffer. (1995). Further evidence that CENP-C is a necessary component of active centromeres: studies of a dic(X;15) with simultaneous immunofluorescence and FISH. Hum. Mol. Genet. 4: 289-294. PMID: 7757082; DOI: 10.1093/hmg/4.2.289; ARTICLE

Mackay, A.M. & W.C. Earnshaw. (1994). The INCENPs: Structural and functional analysis of a family of chromosome passenger proteins. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol., 58: 697-706. PMID: 7956086 DOI: 10.1101/sqb.1993.058.01.077 ARTICLE

Earnshaw, W.C. (1994). Structure and molecular biology of the kinetochore. in Microtubules, J.S. Hyams C. Lloyd, eds. Wiley-Liss, Inc., New York. pp. 393-412.

Saitoh, N., Goldberg, I., Wood, E. & W.C. Earnshaw. (1994). ScII: an abundant chromosome scaffold protein is a member of a family of putative ATPases with an unusual predicted tertiary structure. J. Cell Biol. 127: 303-318. PMID: 7929577; DOI: 10.1083/jcb.127.2.303; FREE ARTICLE

Lazebnik, Y.A., Kaufmann, S.H., Desnoyers, S., Poirier, G.G. & W.C. Earnshaw. (1994). Cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase by a proteinase with properties like ICE. Nature 371: 346-347. PMID: 8090205; DOI: 10.1038/371346a0; ARTICLE

Earnshaw, W.C. & A.M. Mackay. (1994). The role of non-histone proteins in the chromosomal events of mitosis. The FASEB J. 8: 947-956. PMID: 8088460; DOI: 10.1096/fasebj.8.12.8088460; FREE ARTICLE

Earnshaw, W.C. & A.F. Pluta. (1994). Mitosis. BioEssays 16: 639-643. PMID: 7980489; DOI: 10.1002/bies.950160908; ARTICLE

Tomkiel, J.E., C.A. Cooke, H. Saitoh, R.L. Bernat & W.C. Earnshaw. (1994). CENP-C is required for maintaining proper kinetochore size and for a timely transition to anaphase. J. Cell Biol., 125: 531-545. PMID: 8175879; DOI: 10.1083/jcb.125.3.531; FREE ARTICLE

Vázquez-Abad, D., S. Wallace, J.-L. Senécal, F. Joyal, A. Roussin, W.C. Earnshaw & N.F. Rothfield. (1994). Anticentromere autoantibodies. Evaluation of an ELISA using recombinant fusion protein CENP-B as antigen. Arthritis Rheum. 37: 248-252. PMID: 8129780; DOI: 10.1002/art.1780370214; FREE ARTICLE

Tomkiel, J.E. & W.C. Earnshaw. (1993). Structure of the mammalian centromere. in Chromosome Segregation and Anneuploidy. B.K. Vig, ed. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. pp. 13-29. DOI:;  PREVIEW

Earnshaw, W.C., H. Saitoh, J.E. Tomkiel, C.A. Cooke, R.L. Bernat, H. Ratrie, M. Maurer & N.F. Rothfield. (1993). Molecular cloning and characterization of human centromeric autoantigen CENP-C: a component of the inner kinetochore plate. in Chromosomes Today. vol. 11, A.T. Sumner & A.C. Chandley, eds. Chapman & Hall, London. pp. 23-34. DOI:; PREVIEW

Mackay, A.M., D.M. Eckley, C. Chue & W.C. Earnshaw. (1993). Molecular analysis of the INCENPs: Separate domains are required for association with microtubules during interphase and with the central spindle during anaphase. J. Cell Biol. 123: 373-385. PMID: 8408220; DOI: 10.1083/jcb.123.2.373; FREE ARTICLE

Lazebnik, Y.A., S. Cole, C.A. Cooke, W.G. Nelson & W.C. Earnshaw. (1993). Nuclear events of apoptosis in vitro in cell-free mitotic extracts: A model system for analysis of the active phase of apoptosis. J. Cell Biol. 123: 7-22. PMID: 8408207; DOI: 10.1083/jcb.123.1.7; (Featured in From the Archive, The Journal of Cell Biology 173, 150-151 (2006).) FREE ARTICLE

Cooke, C.A., D. P. Bazett-Jones, W.C. Earnshaw & J.B. Rattner. (1993). Mapping DNA within the mammalian kinetochore. J. Cell Biol. 120: 1083-1091. PMID: 7679671; DOI: 10.1083/jcb.120.5.1083; FREE ARTICLE

Saunders, W.S., C. Chue, M. Goebl, C. Craig, R.F. Clark, J.A. Powers, J.C. Eissenberg, S.C. R. Elgin, N.F. Rothfield & W.C. Earnshaw. (1993). Molecular cloning of a human homologue of Drosophila heterochromatin protein HP1 using anticentromere autoantibodies with anti-chromo specificity. J. Cell Sci. 104: 573-582. PMID: 8505380; DOI: unknown; FREE ARTICLE

Jabs, E.W., C.M. Tuckmuller, G.J. Anhalt, W.C. Earnshaw, R.A. Wise & F. Wigley. (1993). Cytogenetic survey in systemic sclerosis – correlation of aneuploidy with the presence of anticentromere antibodies. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 63: 169-175. PMID: 8387418; DOI: 10.1159/000133527; FREE ARTICLE

Earnshaw, W.C., I. Goldberg, A.F. Pluta, N.F. Rothfield, H. Saitoh, W.S. Saunders & J.E. Tomkiel. (1992). Molecular characterization of centromere-associated autoantigens. in Scleroderma International Symposium – Current Topics In Scleroderma. M. Maeda & I Ogawa, eds. Seino Print Co., Gifu City, JAPAN. pp. 87-106.

Earnshaw, W.C. & J.E. Tomkiel. (1992). Centromere and kinetochore structure. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 4: 86-93. PMID: 1558757 DOI: 10.1016/0955-0674(92)90063-I ARTICLE

Saitoh, H., Tomkiel, J., Cooke, C.A., Ratrie, H., Maurer, M., Rothfield, N.F. & W.C. Earnshaw. (1992). CENP-C, an autoantigen in scleroderma, is a component of the human inner kinetochore plate. Cell 70:115-125. PMID: 1339310; DOI: 10.1016/0092-8674(92)90538-N; ARTICLE

Pluta, A.F., N. Saitoh, I. Goldberg & W.C. Earnshaw. (1992). Identification of a subdomain of CENP-B that is necessary and sufficient for localization to the human centromere. J. Cell Biol. 116:1081-1093. PMID: 1740467; DOI: 10.1083/jcb.116.5.1081; FREE ARTICLE

Earnshaw, W.C., Bernat, R.L., Cooke, C.A., & N.F. Rothfield. (1991) The role of the cen­tromere/ kinetochore in cell cycle control. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol., 56: 675-685. PMID: 1819515; DOI: 10.1101/sqb.1991.056.01.076 ARTICLE

Earnshaw, W.C. & J.B. Rattner. (1991). The use of autoantibodies in the study of nuclear and chromosomal organization. in Methods In Cell Biology vol. 35, B.A. Hamkalo & S.C. Elgin, eds. Academic Press, San Diego. pp. 135-175. PMID: 1723479; DOI:;  ARTICLE

Earnshaw, W.C. (1991). Large scale chromosome structure and organization. Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 1: 237-244.  DOI: ARTICLE

Saunders, W.S., Cooke, C.A. & W.C. Earnshaw. (1991). Compartmentalization within the nucleus: Discovery of a novel subnuclear region. J. Cell Biol. 115: 919-931. PMID: 1955462; DOI: 10.1083/jcb.115.4.919; FREE ARTICLE

Bernat, R.L., Delannoy, M.R., Rothfield, N.F. & W.C. Earnshaw. (1991). Disruption of cen­tromere assembly during interphase inhibits kinetochore morphogenesis and function in mitosis. Cell, 66: 1229-1238. PMID: 1913807; DOI: 10.1016/0092-8674(91)90045-Z; ARTICLE

Earnshaw, W.C. (1991). When is a centromere not a kinetochore? J. Cell Sci. 99: 1-4. PMID: 1757494; DOI: unknown; FREE ARTICLE

Yen, T.J., Compton, D.A., Wise, D., Zinkowski, R.P., Brinkley, B.R., Earnshaw, W.C. & D.W. Cleveland. (1991). CENP-E, a novel human centromere associated protein required for progression from metaphase to anaphase. The EMBO J. 10: 1245-1254. PMID: 2022189; PMC452779; DOI: unknown; FREE ARTICLE

Earnshaw, W.C. & C.A. Cooke. (1991). Analysis of the distribution of the INCENPs throughout mitosis reveals the existence of a pathway of structural changes in the chromosomes during metaphase and early events in cleavage furrow formation. J. Cell Sci. 98: 443-461. PMID: 1860899; DOI: unknown; FREE ARTICLE

Earnshaw, W.C. & R.L. Bernat. (1990). Chromosomal passengers: Towards an integrated view of mitosis. Chromosoma, 100:139-146. PMID: 2040201; DOI: 10.1007/BF00337241; ARTICLE

Hildebrandt, S., Noell, G.S., Vázquez-Abad, D., Earnshaw, W.C., Zanetti, M. and N.F. Rothfield. (1991). Idiotypic analysis of human anti-topoisomerase-I autoantibodies. Autoimmunity 10: 41-48. PMID: 1660312; DOI: 10.3109/08916939108997146; ARTICLE

Hildebrandt, S., E.S. Weiner, W.C. Earnshaw, M. Zanetti, N.F. Rothfield. (1991). Idiotypic Analysis Of Human Anticentromere Autoantibodies. Autoimmunity 9: 131-140 PMID: 1657226; DOI: 10.3109/08916939109006749; ARTICLE

Weiner, E.S., Hildebrandt, S., Senecal, J.-L., Daniels, L., Noell, S., Joyal, F., Roussin, A., Earnshaw, W., N.F. Rothfield. (1991). Prognostic significance of anticentromere antibodies and anti-topoisomerase I antibodies in Raynaud’s disease: A prospective study. Arthritis Rheum. 34:68-77. PMID: 1845841; DOI: 10.1002/art.1780340111; FREE ARTICLE

Earnshaw, W.C. & M.M.S. Heck.(1990). Topoisomerase II in mitotic chromosome structure. in The Eukaryotic Nucleus: Molecular Biochemistry and Macromolecular Assemblies. P. Strauss and S. Wilson, eds. Telford Press. pp. 639-657. BOOK

Wevrick, R., Earnshaw, W.C., Howard-Peebles, P.N. & H. Willard. (1990). Partial deletion of alpha satellite DNA associated with reduced amounts of the centromere protein CENP-B in a mitotically stable human chromosome rearrangement. Mol. Cell. Biol. 10:6348-6355. PMID: 2247061; PMC362913; DOI: 10.1128/mcb.10.12.6374; FREE ARTICLE

Wood, E.R. & W.C. Earnshaw. (1990). Mitotic chromatin condensation in vitro using somatic cell extracts and nuclei with variable levels of endogenous topoisomerase II. J. Cell Biol. 111: 2839-2850. PMID: 2176652; DOI: 10.1083/jcb.111.6.2839; FREE ARTICLE

Hildebrandt, S., Wiener, E.S., Senécal, J.-L., Noell, S., Earnshaw, W.C. & N.F. Rothfield. (1990). Autoantibodies to topoisomerase I (Scl-70): Analysis by gel diffusion, immunoblot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clin. Immunol. Immunopath. 57: 399-410. PMID: 2173985; DOI: 10.1016/0090-1229(90)90114-6; ARTICLE

Bernat, R.L., Borisy, G.G., Rothfield, N.F. & W.C. Earnshaw. (1990). Injection of anticentromere antibodies in interphase disrupts events required for chromosome movement at mitosis. J. Cell Biol. , 111:1519-1533. PMID: 2211824; DOI: 10.1083/jcb.111.4.1519; FREE ARTICLE

D’Arpa, P. P., Cleveland, D.W., White-Cooper, H., Rothfield, N.F. & W.C. Earnshaw. (1990). Use of molecular cloning methods to map the distribution of epitopes on topoisomerase I (Scl-70) recognized by sera of scleroderma patients. Arthritis Rheum. , 33: 1501-1511. PMID: 1699543; DOI: 10.1002/art.1780331007; FREE ARTICLE

Pluta, A.F., Cooke, C.A. & W.C. Earnshaw. (1990). Structure of the human centromere at metaphase. Trends Bioch. Sci. 15: 181-185. PMID: 2193435; DOI: 10.1016/0968-0004(90)90158-8; ARTICLE

Cooke, C.A., Bernat, R.L. & W.C. Earnshaw. (1990). CENP-B: A major human centromere protein located beneath the kinetochore. J. Cell Biol. 110: 1475-1488. PMID: 2335558; DOI: 10.1083/jcb.110.5.1475; FREE ARTICLE

Hildebrandt, S., Wiener, E.S., Senécal, J.-L., Noell, S., Daniels, L., Earnshaw, W.C. & N.F. Rothfield. (1990). The IgG, IgM and IgA isotypes of anti-topoisomerase I and anti-centromere autoantibodies. Arthritis Rheum. , 33: 724-727. PMID: 2161233; DOI: 10.1002/art.1780330515; FREE ARTICLE

Moens, P.B. & W.C. Earnshaw. (1990). Anti-topoisomerase II recognizes meiotic chromosome cores. Chromosoma 98:317-322. PMID: 2558860; DOI: 10.1007/BF00292383; ARTICLE